Crimean War
Detail of Franz Roubaud's panoramic painting The Siege of Sevastopol (1904).
Date 1853–1856
Location Crimean Peninsula,
Black Sea,
Baltic Sea,
Pacific Ocean
Result Allied victory, Treaty of Paris
Flag of Second French Empire French Empire
Flag of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Kingdom of Sardinia
Russian Empire
Bulgarian Legion
300,000 Turks
400,000 French
250,000 British
18,000 Sardinians
700,000 Russians
4,000 Bulgarians
374,600 total dead
of which 10,240 killed in action; 20,000 died of wounds; ca 70,000 died of disease
British: 2,755 killed in action; 2,019 died of wounds; 16,323 died of disease
Sardinians: 36 casualties
Italians: 2,050 died from all causes
Turks: total dead and wounded 200,000 est.
total dead est. 50,000
ca 143,000 dead and 81,000 injured of which 25,000 killed in action; 16,000 died of wounds; 89,000 died of disease

The Crimean War, sometimes referred to as the "Great Crimean War of 1854-56" was a series of land and naval confrontations between the forces of the United Kingdom, France, The Ottoman Empire and Russia. The United Kingdom and France went to the aid of the Ottomans against territorial claims by the Russians. This ended the time of peace since the Napoleonic Wars, and would lead to further confrontations later on in the 19th century. New weapons such as the Enfield rifle and underwater mines were introduced. The war was fought not only in Crimea but in the Baltic and the Pacific.

Prelude to WarEdit

Russo-Turkish WarsEdit

Since the late 16th century, Russia and Turkey had been fighting each other over Ottoman Territory. Catherine the Great added to this push.

The Holy LandEdit

Both France, a Catholic Nation; and Russia, an Orthodox nation have been competing with each other for the "key" to the Holy land. In 1740, France signed a treaty with the Ottoman Empire, guaranteeing their right to the Holy land. But in 1783, Russia signed a treaty with the Ottomans, guaranteeing their right to the Holy land. This would lead to issues later on.[1]

A Sick ManEdit

In 1844, Tsar Nicholas of Russia arrived in London to ask the British to draw up a plan to split the Ottoman Empire. They were in his opinion, "a sick man". But England was not yet ready to leave the Ottomans helpless against the Russians. Both the British and the French has powerful diplomatic missions in Constantinople. Both were trying to prevent the Russians from intimidating the Ottomans.[2]


  1. Royle, Trevor. "A Churchwarden's Quarrel." Crimea: The Great Crimean War 1854-1856. New York Cityq: St. Martin's, 2000. 16-19.
  2. Royle, Trevor. "Prologue:1851." Crimea: The Great Crimean War 1854-1856. New York Cityq: St. Martin's, 2000. 1-15.
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