People's Liberation Army



Emblem of the People's Liberation Army

Founded 1 August 1927
Service branches [2] PLA Ground Force[3] PLA Navy[4] PLA Air Force

Second Artillery Corps People's Armed Police

Chairman of Central Military Commission Hu Jintao
Minister of Ministry of National Defense General Liang Guanglie
Chief of PLA General Staff General Chen Bingde
Military age 18–49 (compulsory de jure; voluntary de facto)
Conscription None
Available for

military service

654,229,201 males, age 16–49 (2009 est.),

429,058,000 females, age 16–49 (2009 est.)

Fit for

military service

472,294,719 males, age 16–49 (2009 est.),

350,991,416 females, age 16–49 (2009 est.)

Reaching military

age annually

11Million~ males (2009 est.),

10Million~ females (2009 est.)

Active personnel approximately 3,440,000[1] (ranked 1st)
Reserve personnel 1,200,000[1]
Deployed personnel Overseas: ~300 anti-pirate personel in Somalia [1]Paramilitary: approximately 4,100,000[1]Total: 7,540,000~ [1] (ranked 3rd)
Budget $80.64 billion (2010) [2] (ranked 2nd)
Percent of GDP 1,5% (2010 est.)
Domestic suppliers Norinco

Aviation Industry Corporation of China Poly Technologies Guizhou Aircraft Industry Corporation Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation Inner-Mongolia First Machine Group Company Limited Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation Shaanxi Aircraft Corporation Shenyang Aircraft Corporation Sichuan Lantian Helicopter Company Limited Harbin First Machinery Building Group Ltd Aviation Industry Corporation of China ACAC consortium Hongdu Aviation Industry Group China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group Jiangnan Shipyard China State Shipbuilding Corporation China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation[3]

Foreign suppliers Russia
Annual imports Russia
Annual exports Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia
Related articles
History History of the PLA

Modernization of the PLA

Ranks Army

Navy Air Force

[hide]People's Liberation Army
Traditional Chinese 中國人民解放軍
Simplified Chinese 中国人民解放军
Literal meaning Chinese People's Liberation Army

The People's Liberation Army (PLA) (Chinese: 人民解放军) is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China (CCP). The People's Liberation Army's insignia consists of a roundel with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for "Eight One" referring to August 1 (Chinese: 八一), the date of the 1927 Nanchang Uprising.

The PLA is the world's largest military force, with approximately 3 million members (see List of countries by number of total troops), and has the world's largest (active) standing army, with approximately 2.25 million members (see List of countries by number of active troops). The PLA comprises five main service branches consisting of the PLA Ground Force, PLA Navy (PLAN), PLA Air Force (PLAAF), Second Artillery Corps (strategic nuclear or missile force), and the PLA Reserve Force. The People's Armed Police (PAP), a Chinese paramilitary force under the dual leadership of the Central Military Commission and the Ministry of Public Security, is sometimes confused as a branch of the PLA (both the PLA and the PAP are under the lead of Central Military Commission).

Military service is compulsory, in theory, for all men who attain the age of 18; women may register for duty in the medical, veterinary, and other technical services at ages as young as 14. However, a draft in China has never been enforced due to large numbers of volunteers from China's huge population. Demobilized servicemen are carried in a ready reserve, which is reinforced by a standby reserve of veterans and by the militia.

The PLA is formally under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CCP; there is also an identical commission in the government, but it has no clear independent functions. The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council, does not exercise any authority over the PLA and is far less powerful than the Central Military Commission (CMC). The ministry assures continuing CCP control over the armed forces, and its primary role is that of a liaison office with foreign militaries. The political and military leaderships has made a concerted effort to create a professional military force restricted to national defense and to the provision of assistance in domestic economic construction and emergency relief. This conception of the role of the PLA requires the promotion of specialized officers who can understand modern weaponry and handle combined arms operations. Troops around the country are stationed in seven military regions and more than 20 military districts.

Chairman Hu Jintao has defined the missions of the PLA as:

  • Consolidate the ruling status of the Communist Party
  • Help ensure China’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and domestic security in order to continue national development
  • Safeguard China’s expanding national interests
  • Help maintain world peace[6]


[hide]*1 History

edit HistoryEdit

Main articles: History of the People's Liberation Army and Chinese armies (pre-1911) The People's Liberation Army was founded on 1 August 1927 during the Nanchang Uprising when troops of the Kuomintang (KMT) rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De, He Long, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai shortly after the end of the first Kuomintang–Communist alliance. They were then known as the Chinese Red Army (simplified Chinese: 红军; traditional Chinese: 紅軍; pinyin: hóngjūn). Between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March.

Commercial Interests [5][6] Vintage Chinese propaganda poster, showing the PLA. The caption reads, "An Army of the People is Invincible". The soldier on top is shown to be holding a copy of Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong.During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, the Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units. During this time, these two military groups primarily used guerrilla warfare, but also fought several conventional battles with the Japanese and the Kuomintang.

After the end of the Sino-Japanese War, the Communist Party merged the two military groups and renamed the multi-million strong force the "People's Liberation Army" and eventually won the Chinese Civil War. During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet help transformed itself from a peasant army into a modern one. In November 1950, the PLA or People's Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River. Under the weight of this offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthur's forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul, but were subsequently pushed back to a line just north of the 38th Parallel. That war also served as a catalyst for the rapid modernization of the PLAAF. In 1962, the PLA also fought India in the Sino-Indian War which resulted in a swift victory.

Prior to the Cultural Revolution, military region commanders tended to remain in post for long periods. As the PLA took a stronger role in politics, this began to be seen as something of a threat to party (or, at least, civilian) control of the gun. The longest serving military region commanders were Xu Shiyou in the Nanjing Military Region (1954–74), Yang Dezhi in the Jinan Military Region (1958–74), Chen Xilian in the Shenyang Military Region (1959–73), and Han Xianchu in the Fuzhou Military Region (1960–74).

Establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the Four Modernizations announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping. In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the PLA has demobilized millions of men and women since 1978 and has introduced modern methods in such areas as recruitment and manpower, strategy, and education and training. In 1979, the PLA fought Vietnam over a border skirmish in the Sino-Vietnamese War where it was reported that China lost more than 20,000 soldiers. Both sides claimed victory.

In the 1980s, China shrunk its military considerably to free up resources for economic development, resulting in the relative decline in resources devoted to the PLA. Following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, ideological correctness was temporarily revived as the dominant theme in Chinese military affairs. Reform and modernization have today resumed their position as the PLA's priority objectives, although the armed forces' political loyalty to the CCP has remained a leading concern. Another area of concern to the political leadership was the PLA's involvement in civilian economic activities. These activities were thought to have impacted PLA readiness and has led the political leadership to attempt to divest the PLA from its non-military business interests.

Beginning in the 1980s, the PLA tried to transform itself from a land-based power, centred on a vast ground force, to a smaller, mobile, high-tech one capable of mounting operations beyond its borders. The motivation for this was that a massive land invasion by Russia was no longer seen as a major threat, and the new threats to China are seen to be a declaration of independence by Taiwan, possibly with assistance from the United States, or a confrontation over the Spratly Islands.

In 1985, under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the CMC, the PLA changed from being constantly prepared to "hit early, strike hard and to fight a nuclear war" to developing the military in an era of peace. The PLA reoriented itself to modernization, improving its fighting ability, and to become a world-class force.

Deng Xiaoping stressed that the PLA needed to focus more on quality rather than on quantity. The decision of the Chinese government in 1985 to reduce the size of the military by one million was completed by 1987. Staffing in military leadership was cut by about 50 percent. During the Ninth Five Year Plan (1996–2000) the PLA was reduced by a further 500,000. The PLA had also been expected to be reduced by another 200,000 by 2005. The PLA has focused on increasing mechanization and informatization so as to be able to fight a high-intensity war.[7]

Jiang Zemin in 1990 called on the military to "meet political standards, be militarily competent, have a good working style, adhere strictly to discipline, and provide vigorous logistic support" (Chinese: 部队要做到政治合格、军事过硬、作风优良、纪律严明、保障有力; pinyin: bùduì yào zuò dào zhèngzhì hégé, jūnshì guòyìng, zuòfēng yōuliáng, jìlǜ yánmíng, bǎozhàng yǒulì).[8]

The 1991 Gulf War provided the Chinese leadership with a stark realization that the PLA was an oversized, obsolescent force. The possibility of a militarized Japan has also been a continuous concern to the Chinese leadership since the late 1990s. In addition, China's military leadership has been reacting to and learning from the successes and failures of the American military during the Kosovo War, the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the ongoing Iraqi insurgency. All these lessons inspired China to transform PLA from a military based on quantity to one based on quality. [7][8] Marines of the People's Liberation Army (Navy).Chairman Jiang Zemin officially made a "Revolution in Military Affairs" (RMA) part of the official national military strategy in 1993 in order to modernize the Chinese armed forces. A goal of the RMA is to transform the PLA into a force capable of winning what it calls "local wars under high-tech conditions" rather than a massive, numbers-dominated ground-type war. The Chinese military planners call for short decisive campaigns, limited in both their geographic scope and their political goals. In contrast to the past, more attention is given to reconnaissance, mobility, and deep reach. This new vision has shifted resources towards the navy and air force. PLA is also actively preparing for space warfare and cyber-warfare.

For the past 10 to 20 years, the PLA has acquired some advanced weapons systems from Russia, including Sovremenny class destroyers, Sukhoi Su-27 and Sukhoi Su-30 aircraft, and Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines. It has also completed several new destroyers and frigates including 2 AAW Type 052C class guided missile destroyers. In addition, the PLAAF has built an indigenous J-10 fighter aircraft. The PLA launched the new Jin class nuclear submarines on 3 December 2004 capable of launching nuclear warheads that could strike targets across the Pacific Ocean.

edit Major wars and eventsEdit

edit Organization Edit

National Military Command

The state military system upholds the principle of the CCP's absolute leadership over the armed forces. The party and the State jointly established the CMC that carries out the task of supreme military leadership over the armed forces. The 1954 Constitution stated that the State President directs the armed forces and made the State President the chair of the Defense Commission (the Defense Commission is an advisory body, it does not lead the armed forces). On 28 September 1954, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party re-established the CMC as the leader of the PLA and the armed forces. From that time onwards, the system of joint system of party and state military leadership was established. The Central Committee of the Communist Party leads in all military affairs. The State President directs the state military forces and the development of the military forces managed by the State Council.

In order to ensure the absolute leadership of the Communist Party over the armed forces, every level of party committee in the military forces implements the principles of democratic centralism, the divisions and higher levels establish political commissars and political organizations, and ensures that the branch organizations are in line. These systems melded the party organization with the military organization in order to achieve the party's leadership and administrative leadership. This is the key guarantee to the absolute leadership of the party over the military.

edit Military LeadershipEdit

The leadership by the CCP is a fundamental principle of the Chinese military command system. The PLA reports not to the State Council but rather to two Central Military Commissions, one belonging to the state and one belonging to the party.

In practice, the two Central Military Commissions do not conflict each other because their membership is usually identical. Often, the only difference in membership between the two occurs for a few months every five years, during the period between a Party Congress, when Party CMC membership changes, and the next ensuing National People's Congress, when the State CMC changes. The CMC carries out its responsibilities according to the authority given to it by the Constitution and National Defense Law.[9]

On 11 November 1949, the Air Force leadership structure was established and the Navy leadership the following April. In 1950, the leadership structures of the artillery, armored troops, air defense troops, public security forces, and worker–soldier militias were also established. Later established were the leadership organizations of other forces such as the chemical warfare defense forces, the railroad forces, the communications forces, and the second artillery.

The leadership of each type of military force is under the leadership and management of the corresponding part of the Central Military Commission of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. Forces under each military branch or force such as the subordinate forces, academies and schools, scientific research and engineering institutions, logistical support organizations, are also under the leadership of the CMC. This arrangement has been especially useful as China over the past several decades has moved increasingly towards military organizations composed of forces from more than one military branch. In September 1982, in order to meet the needs of modernization and to improve coordination in the command of forces including multiple service branches and to strengthen unified command of the military, the CMC ordered that the leadership organization of the various military branches be abolished. The PLA now has Air Force, Navy and Second Artillery leadership organs.

In 1986, the People's Armed Forces Department, except in some border regions, was put under the joint leadership of the PLA and the local authorities. Although the local party organizations paid close attention to the People's Armed Forces Department, as a result of some practical problems, the CMC decided that after 1 April 1996, the People's Armed Forces Department will be once again be under the PLA. [9] [10] General Liang Guanglie saluting.According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the CMC is composed of the following: the Chairman; the Vice-Chairmen; and Members. The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the commission.

As of Mar.2008:[10][11]


Vice Chairmen:

  • Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission – General Guo Boxiong
  • Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission – General Xu Caihou


edit Central Military CommissionEdit

In December 1982, the fifth National People's Congress revised the State Constitution to provide that the State Central Military Commission leads all the armed forces of the state. The chair of the State CMC is chosen and removed by the full NPC while the other members are chosen by the NPC Standing Committee. However, the CMC of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party remained the party organization that directly leads the military and all the other armed forces.

In actual practice, the party CMC, after consultation with the democratic parties, proposes the names of the State CMC members of the NPC so that these people after going through the legal processes can be elected by the NPC to the State Central Military Commission. That is to say, that the CMC of the Central Committee and the CMC of the State are one group and one organization. However, looking at it organizationally, these two CMCs are subordinate to two different systems – the party system and the State system. Therefore the armed forces are under the absolute leadership of the Communist Party and are also the armed forces of the state. This is unique joint leadership system reflects the origin of the PLA as the military branch of the Communist Party. It only became the national military when the People's Republic was established in 1949.

By convention, the chairman and vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission are civilian members of the Communist Party of China, but they are not necessarily the heads of the civilian government. Both Jiang Zemin and Deng Xiaoping retained the office of chairman even after relinquishing their other positions. All of the other members of the CMC are uniformed active military officials. As with other nations, the Ministry of National Defense is not the head of the military, but is usually a vice chairman of the CMC.

edit PLA General HQEdit

The PLA General Headquarters are composed of the following departments:

The GPD maintains a system of political commissars which maintain a separate chain of command to ensure loyalty to the party and the civilian government. The CMC exercises leadership over the military regions, the Navy and the Air Force and the Second Artillery through the four general departments.

Within a military region, the three service branches are coordinated in the battle operations under the unified command of the military district. The Second Artillery is however under the direct leadership of the CMC. The army units in a military region are under the leadership of that military region. The navy and air force troops in a military region are under the joint leadership of the military region and their service branch.

edit Military regionEdit

[11] [12] PLA military regions (1996)Further information: PLA Military Region Under the General Staff Headquarters are the seven military regions:

The PLA garrisons in Hong Kong and Macau are both under the administration of the Guangzhou MR.

The organization into Military Area Commands (MAC) has been much criticized as being obsolete and irrelevant in the 21st century, and there has been wide speculation that the system might be drastically altered in the next several years. Coordination with civilian national security groups such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is achieved primarily by the leading groups of the Communist Party of China. Particularly important are the leading groups on foreign affairs and Taiwan.

edit Service branchesEdit

|} The PLA encompasses five main service branches: Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Second Artillery (strategic missile force), and the People's Armed Police. Following the 200,000 troop reduction from 2003 to 2005, the total end-strength of the PLA has been reduced from 2.5 million to 2.3 million. There are 660,000 personnel serving in the People's Armed Police (PAP), and 1.2-1.5 million in the reserve forces and militia.

The PLA has paid close attention to the performance of the US armed forces in Afghanistan and Iraq. As well as learning from the success of the US military in network-centric warfare, joint operations, C4ISR, and hi-tech weaponry, the PLA is also studying the unconventional tactics that could be used to exploit the vulnerabilities of a more technologically-advanced enemy. This has been reflected in the two parallel guidelines for the PLA ground forces development. While speeding up the process of introducing new technology into the force and retiring the older equipment, the PLA has also placed an emphasis on asymmetric warfare, including finding methods of using existing equipment to defeat a technologically superior enemy.

edit PLA Ground ForceEdit

Main article: People's Liberation Army Ground Force The PLA deploys the world's largest ground force, currently totaling some 1.6 million personnel, or about 70 percent of the PLA's total manpower (2.3 million). The ground forces are divided among the seven military regions as named above. [17] [18] A Type 99 tank at the China People's Revolution Military Museum in BeijingThe regular forces of the ground forces consist of 18 Group Armies, which are corps-size combined arms units each with approximately 30,000-65,000 personnel. The group armies contain, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies's 2006 Military Balance, among them 9 armored divisions, 3 mechanized infantry divisions, 24 motorized infantry divisions, 15 infantry divisions, two amphibious assault divisions, one mechanized infantry brigade, 22 motorized infantry brigades, 12 armored brigades, 7 artillery divisions, 14 artillery brigades, 19 anti-aircraft artillery missile brigades, and 10 army aviation (helicopter) regiments (two training).

In times of crisis, the PLA Ground Force will be reinforced by numerous reserve and paramilitary units. The PLA reserve component has about 1.2-1.5 million personnel divided into 30 infantry, and 12 anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) divisions. In addition, approximately 1.1 million armored personnel carriers (APC). Two amphibious mechanized divisions were also created in Nanjing and Guangzhou MR. At least 40 percent of PLA divisions and brigades are now mechanized or armored, almost double the percentage before the reduction.

While much of the PLA Ground Force was being reduced over the past few years, technology-intensive elements such as special operations forces (SOF), army aviation (helicopters), surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), and electronic warfare units have all been rapidly expanded. The latest operational doctrine of the PLA ground forces highlights the importance of information technology, electronic and information warfare, and long-range precision strikes in future warfare. The older generation telephone/radio-based command, control, and communications (C3) systems are being replaced by an integrated battlefield information networks featuring local/wide-area networks (LAN/WAN), satellite communications, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based surveillance and reconnaissance systems, and mobile command and control centers.[12]

The Chinese marines have extensive training in CQC (close quarters combat) and hand-to-hand combat.

edit PLA NavyEdit

[19] [20] Sailors shown in 2009 during 60th anniversary celebrations of the PLAN.Main article: People's Liberation Army Navy Until the early 1990s, the navy performed a subordinate role to the PLA Land Forces. Since then it has undergone rapid modernization. The 250,000-man People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is organized into three major fleets: the North Sea Fleet headquartered at Qingdao, the East Sea Fleet headquartered at Ningbo, and the South Sea Fleet headquartered in Zhanjiang. Each fleet consists of a number of surface ship, submarine, naval air force, coastal defense, and marine units.

The navy includes 35,000 Coastal Defense Force and 56,000 Naval infantry/Marines (two multi-arm marine brigades), plus a 56,000 PLAN Aviation naval air arm operating several hundred land-based aircraft and ship-based helicopters. As part of its overall program of naval modernization, the PLAN has been developing a blue water navy. The Navy also utilises the CJ-10 naval cruise missile system, which made its first public appearance during late 2009.

|- style="display: none; height: 2px" | |- style="display: none" | class="navbox-group"|Coastal warfare vessels | class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"| {| cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width: 100%" | class="navbox-group" style="padding-left: 0em; padding-right: 0em"|Missile boats | class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; line-height: 1.4em; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"|Type 022 Houbei class · Type 037-II Houjian class · Type 037-IG Houxin class · Type 021 Houdong class · Type 021 Huangfeng (Soviet Osa-I) class · Type 021 Hola class · China Cat (C 14) class · Type 024 Heku/Hegu/Houku/Hougu class |- style="height: 2px" | |- | class="navbox-group" style="padding-left: 0em; padding-right: 0em"|Torpedo boats | class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; line-height: 1.4em; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"|Type 025 Huchuan class · P4 class |- style="height: 2px" | |- | class="navbox-group" style="padding-left: 0em; padding-right: 0em"|Gunboats | class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; line-height: 1.4em; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"|Type 062-I Shanghai III class · Type 062 Shanghai II class · Type 062 Shanghai I class · Type 206 Huludao class · Shantou class+ · Beihai class+ · Huangpu class+ · Yulin class+ |- style="height: 2px" | |- | class="navbox-group" style="padding-left: 0em; padding-right: 0em"|Submarine chasers | class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; line-height: 1.4em; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"|Type 037-IS Haiqing class · Type 037-I Haijiu class · Type 062-I Haizhui class · Type 037 Hainan class · Kronshtadt class |} |- style="display: none; height: 2px" | |- style="display: none" | class="navbox-group"|Amphibious warfare vessels | class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"| {| cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width: 100%" | class="navbox-group" style="padding-left: 0em; padding-right: 0em"|Landing platforms | class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; line-height: 1.4em; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"|Type 071 Yuzhao class amphibious transport dock |- style="height: 2px" | |- | class="navbox-group" style="padding-left: 0em; padding-right: 0em"|Landing ships | class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; line-height: 1.4em; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"|Type 072 Yukan class LST · Type072-II Yuting I class LST · Type 072-III Yuting II class LST · Type 079 Yuliang class LSM · Type 074 Yuhai (Wuhu-A) class LSM · Type 073 I/II/III class LSM · Type 073 IV Yunshu class LSM |- style="height: 2px" | |- | class="navbox-group" style="padding-left: 0em; padding-right: 0em"|Landing craft | class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; line-height: 1.4em; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"|Yubei class LCU · Type 722-II Jingsha II class LCAC · Type 724 LCAC · Type 271 Yupen class LCU · Type 067 Yunnan class LCU · Type 068/069 Yuch'in class LCM · Zubr class LCAC* |} |- style="display: none; height: 2px" | |- style="display: none" | class="navbox-group"|Minesweepers, Minelayers | class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align: left; border-left: 2px solid; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; width: 100%; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px"|Type 081 Wochi class minehunter · Type 082-II Wozang class minehunter · Type 918 Wolei class minelayer · Type 010 class oceangoing minesweeper · T-43 class oceangoing minesweeper+ · Type 082 Wosao class minesweeper · Type 062 Fushun class coastal minesweeper+ · Type 312 Futi class minesweeper / minesweeping drone |- style="display: none; height: 2px" | |- style="display: none" | class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"|* = Under construction or procurement + = Retired Ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy · People's Liberation Army |} |}

edit PLA Air ForceEdit

Main article: People's Liberation Army Air Force The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF), with some 250,000 personnel and 2300 Fighters and Attackers, is organized into seven Military Region Air Forces (MRAF) and 24 Air Divisions. It is the largest air force in Asia-Pacific region and the third largest in the world (after the USAF and the Russian Air Force). The largest operational units within the Aviation Corps is the air division, which has 2 to 3 aviation regiments, each with 20 to 36 aircraft. The surface-to-air missile (SAM) Corps is organized into SAM divisions and brigades. There are also three airborne divisions manned by the PLAAF.

edit Second Artillery CorpsEdit

Main article: Second Artillery Corps The Second Artillery Corps (SAC) is the strategic missile forces of the PLA. It controls China's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles. China's total nuclear arsenal size is estimated to be between 100 and 400 nuclear weapons. The SAC has approximately 90,000-120,000 personnel and six ballistic missile divisions (missile corps bases). The six divisions are independently deployed in different military regions and have a total of 15 to 20 missile brigades.

edit People's Armed PoliceEdit

[22] [23] A People's Armed Police Squad in the Forbidden City Main article: People's Armed Police The PAP is the paramilitary force primarily responsible for law enforcement and internal security and is under a unique dual-leadership system of the Central Military Commission and local public security bureaus (local police departments). The PAP was formed in 1983 when the PLA transferred its internal security and border defense responsibilities to the Ministry of Public Security. In wartime, the PAP, as part of China's armed forces, would be used as light infantry, performing border defense and other support functions to assist the regular ground forces.

In general, the PLA regular forces' main purpose is national defense and has rarely been used for internal security or police functions. Most such issues in the country however are handled by the paramilitary People's Armed Police. The instances in which the PLA has been used for non-military internal security duties have included several incidents during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Tibet in 1989, and with the Tiananmen Protests of 1989. Many times, the PLA has been involved in flood relief operations, particularly in the Yellow River region.

edit Conscription and terms of service Edit

edit Military intelligence Edit

edit Weapons and equipment Edit

edit Military budget Edit

edit Peacekeeping Operations Edit

Sea Also edit Edit

Notes edit Edit

References and further reading Edit

Early History Edit

The PLA traces it's roots back to the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927, in which the communist rebels attacked the Guo Min Tang controlled city of Nanchang. Afterwards, the rebels, then called the Red army, or peasents army, fleed to the mountains of Hunan and Jiangxi, and used Mao Zedong's guerrilla warfare tactics to fight the loyalist Guo Min Tang army. However, the Japanese invasion of China would put a hold on the communist war effort to fight the Japanese invaders. After the Japanese defeat in World War II, the "Red Army" adopted the name the Peoples Liberation Army, and they proceeded to defeat the loyalist Guo Min Tang army.[1]

Army of the People's Republic, and the Korean War Edit

After the formation of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, the People's Liberation army quickly added an Air Force and a Navy. Afterwards, China began receiving support from the Soviet Union, in particular during the Korean War. According to the Chinese Consulate, 70% of the PLA was sent to the Korean war effort, apparently almost three million "volunteers" [2] during this time, China received extensive amounts of effort from the Soviet Union

Vietnam War and the Sino-Vietnamese War Edit

Although the Chinese were involved in the Vietnam War, their main function was to supply the Vietong with weapons.[3][4] However, in 1979 China did have a brief but violent dispute with Vietnam over the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, in which China sent a force of 85,000 into Vietnam.[5]

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